Bone and muscle communicate with each other not only in a mechanical way but also through the endocrine and paracrine signaling. NF-kB is the most important signaling factor in muscle loss and also in bone cell death.
Osteoporosis and sarcopenia cost a lot of health budget in Europe and the United States. These two diseases shared a common pathway ; therefore, scientists think they two may be one disease which can be called osteosarcopenia.
Moreover, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and obesity are found to coexist in a certain group. These three also share a common pathologic pathway.